Blower scavenged Diagram of uniflow scavenging Using a separate blower avoids many of the shortcomings of crankcase scavenging, at the expense of increased complexity which means a higher cost and an increase in maintenance requirement. An engine of this type uses ports or valves for intake and valves for exhaust, except opposed piston engines, which may also use ports for exhaust. The blower is usually of the Roots-type but other types have been used too. This design is commonplace in CI engines, and has been occasionally used in SI engines. CI engines that use a blower typically use uniflow scavenging. In this design the cylinder wall contains several intake ports placed uniformly spaced along the circumference just above the position that the piston crown reaches when at BDC. An exhaust valve or several like that of 4-stroke engines is used. The final part of the intake manifold is an air sleeve which feeds the intake ports.The intake ports are placed at an horizontal angle to the cylinder wall (I.e: they are in plane of the piston crown) to give a swirl to the incoming charge to improve combustion.The largest reciprocating IC are low speed CI engines of this type; they are used for marine propulsion (see marine diesel engine) or electric power generation and achieve the highest thermal efficiencies among internal combustion engines of any kind.
Some Diesel-electric locomotive engines operate on the 2-stroke cycle.
The most powerful of them have a brake power of around 4.5 MW or 6,000 HP.The EMD SD90MAC class of locomotives use a 2-stroke engine. The comparable class GE AC6000CW whose prime mover has almost the same brake power uses a 4-stroke engine. An example of this type of engine is the Wärtsilä-Sulzer RTA96-C turbocharged 2-stroke Diesel, used in large container ships. It is the most efficient and powerful internal combustion engine in the world with a thermal efficiency over 50%.9101112 For comparison, the most efficient small four-stroke engines are around 43% thermally-efficient (SAE 900648);citation needed size is an advantage for efficiency due to the increase in the ratio of volume to surface area. See the external links for a in-cylinder combustion video in a 2-stroke, optically accessible motorcycle engine.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine
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The large-scale, production-line manufacturing of affordable cars was debuted by Ransom Olds in 1901 at his Oldsmobile factory located in Lansing, Michigan and based upon stationary assembly line techniques pioneered by Marc Isambard Brunel at the Portsmouth Block Mills, England, in 1802.
Only Japan Black would dry fast enough, forcing the company to drop the variety of colors available before 1913, until fast-drying Duco lacquer was developed in 1926.
This is the source of Ford's apocryphal remark, "any color as long as it's black".34 In 1914, an assembly line worker could buy a Model T with four months' pay.34 Ford's complex safety procedures?especially assigning each worker to a specific location instead of allowing them to roam about?dramatically reduced the rate of injury.
The combination of high wages and high efficiency is called "Fordism," and was copied by most major industries.The efficiency gains from the assembly line also coincided with the economic rise of the United States.